Non-Academic Literature Reviews

Representation and Recognition

Institutional Support and Environment

Hiring, Evaluation, Promotion, and Retention

Diversity Fatigue

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Next Steps

Studies Cited

Representation and Recognition

  • Jack (2023): This article discusses the evaluation of a journal’s impact, recognizing that there is no objective measure for tracking progress towards inclusivity in science or for evaluating who contributes to health research. A study led by Gallifant finds that there is significant underrepresentation of female authors, and that low- or middle-income countries are the most at risk of being “left behind” as academia becomes more centralized in high-income countries.
  • JHU Newsletter (2023): The Johns Hopkins Newsletter Editorial Board emphasizes the need for diversity in higher education and calls on Hopkins to make the Center for Africana Studies an academic department.
  • Rude (2023): This article discusses Miami University’s student and faculty demographics along with faculty anecdotes on diverse representation, noting that while Miami University faculty is 83% white, this proportion is only slightly more than most higher-education institutions in the U.S.
  • Perna (2023): Institutions need better data on faculty backgrounds, their experiences and working conditions, and (in)equities in measures of success, Laura W. Perna writes. Crucially, we lack a source of recent, nationally representative and individual-level data on faculty. As such, data that are aggregated at the institution level cannot tell us how the characteristics, experiences and working conditions of different groups of faculty vary within institutions or across academic disciplines.
  • Patel (2021): The author discusses implications of a minimal increase in the share of Black recipients of doctorates, for colleges that want to diversify their faculty. 
  • Kyaw (2021): The article explains findings from the Southern Regional Education Board, on how rates of underrepresented faculty in higher education have not been keeping up with the increasingly diversifying student demographics.
  • Centeno (2021): The author, a Latinx, first-generation college student, speaks on personal experiences in a predominantly white institution and the need for increased faculty diversity.
  • Flaherty (2021): The article discusses implications of a new study that looks back to find that faculty diversity took a hit in terms of tenure-track hires during and after the Great Recession.
  • Lem et al. (2021): The article investigates the accessibility of academic careers for women in Japanese higher education.
  • Corley 2020: While colleges have enrolled more women than men for years, a recent Forbes finds women working in higher education, especially those of color, continuing to face systemic issues that hinder their career advancement, rendering them a rare sighting in academia.
  • Klawe 2020 and Goldberg 2019 : Columbia University geoscientists state that the lack of diversity in climate change research can lead to the disregard of a study’s’ impact on people from marginalized communities, and NYU artificial intelligence researchers conclude that the lack of women in the forefront of AI development results in flawed AI systems that perpetuate gender and racial biases.
  • Asare 2019: Little change in ethno-racial diversity in higher education has been justified by many reasons, outlined by Asare in a 2019 Forbes article. While some university administrators point to a pipeline problem, a significant amount of doctorate graduates of color exist in the United States.
  • Davis and Fry 2019:  A 2019 article from Pew Research Center points out that over the past two decades, while college faculty have become more racially and ethnically diverse, they are still less likely to be racial or ethnic minorities than their students.
  • Murphy 2019 and Tulshyan 2019: As mentioned in a 2019 Enago article, racial and gender disparities are further evident in the lack of recognition for publication contributions and work done by female scholars. The most glaring underrepresentation of people of color and women experts in their fields, noted in the Harvard Business Review (2019), is found at conferences and high profile gatherings that primarily consist of all-male or all-white panels.
  • Koedel 2017: If a university seeks to improve the outcomes and earning potentials for disadvantaged-minority and female students, Brookings researchers, Koedel and Li (2017) advise them to independently consider and prioritize adding diverse faculty to STEM fields. Increased investment and focus on the most underrepresented groups in academia is crucial, since predominantly white institutions’ stated diversity goals often never fully materialize
  • The Economist 2015 : the article observes a severe imbalance in faculty diversity appearing between STEM and non-STEM fields, possibly caused by systemic beliefs that African American and female professors lack the innate talent required for success in their academic careers.
  • Wingfield 2015: Taking historically black colleges and universities’ diverse faculties as an example, a 2015 article from The Atlantic stresses that historically white universities do not have a proportional representation of “qualified” candidates of color since they refrain from seeking them out, and dismiss the lack of diversity as a pipeline issue.
  • Truong 2010: research on doctoral students of color finds that their confrontations with racism and racial trauma during their studies lead to a desire to pursue their careers outside of higher education. The study adds that students of color deterred from entering academia experience a lack of inclusion, needing additional encouragement and mentorship relationships. The role model effect, when students advance their personal and professional lives by witnessing attainable success from relatable role models, is one of the primary risks. At the same time, study also recognizes that faculty of color often experience tokenism due to their lack of proportional representation to students of color.

Institutional Support and Environment

  • Adami (2023): Over the last academic year, department chairs and other senior academic leaders from the nation’s top research universities gathered to discuss how they can increase equity within their institutions.These top scholars were the initial cohort of the Institute on Inquiry, Equity and Leadership in the Academic Department, hosted by the Faculty Advancement Network (FAN), a consortium of universities collaborating to advance diversity and inclusion in the U.S. professoriate.
  • Stewart (2023): South Dakota is just one example of Republican-led states taking action against diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts in academia. In the face of such actions, this article discusses Cheryl Crazy Bull, president and CEO of the Denver, Colorado-based American Indian College Fund and her urge for higher education leaders to have a clear sense of purpose, especially as Native student enrollment declines across the country.
  • Ivanova (2023): Student Research Fellow Lily Ivanova explores what makes a professor more or less likely to break out of traditional formats of teaching and evaluation: something to do with their academic identity. Ivanova invokes several theories and studies on what impacts professors’ teaching styles, from social reproduction to personal interpretations of equity.
  • Poliakoff (2023): In Forbes, Poliakoff writes about the practices of DEI offices and budgets and their ROI. He notes that pending legislation focuses less on the ROI of DEI offices than on the perception of harm that they do to academic standards and the quality of campus life.
  • Curran (2023):In Brookings, Curran, a professor in a Florida university, comments on proposed legislation that threatens viewpoint diversity in higher education. He believes that current policy proposals could broadly limit teaching and research related to DEI and remove protections for faculty to research and teach without fear of reprisal.
  • UChicago News (2023): UChicago is the host institution of the Ivy+ Faculty Advancement Network (FAN), a consortium of peer universities seeking innovative collaborations to open pathways through the academic profession. For its inaugural initiative, the consortium has selected nearly 50 faculty fellows, including five faculty from UChicago, to explore efforts to make their departments and disciplines more diverse. Those fellows will gather this spring at the University for a capstone event to discuss learnings from the past academic year.
  • Asare (2023): In Forbes, Asare discusses the threat of U.S. lawmakers’ efforts to defund DEI efforts within higher education, with Black faculty most at-risk. Black faculty are severely underrepresented within higher education, representing 7% of all faculty in the U.S. (2020). Asare also describes the effects of racial battle fatigue as a result of racial stereotyping in the workplace.
  • Hawkins (2023): This article discusses how the principles of academic freedom and diversity, equity, and inclusion collide, such that academic administrators, much like judges, need to take seriously the responsibility to weigh the competing interests involved. Therefore, decisions balancing academic freedom and academic responsibility, much like the adjudication of rights by courts, require close scrutiny, delicate balancing of interests, and context-dependent inquiries.
  • Khalid and Snyder (2023): This article also explores the relationship between academic freedom and universities’ responsibility to foster an inclusive learning community. Khalid and Snyder state that when institutions proclaim that academic freedom and inclusion coexist in a kind of synergistic harmony, they are trafficking in PR-driven wishful thinking. In the hardest cases, there is no way of upholding an “all are welcome here” brand of inclusion while simultaneously defending academic freedom.
  • Knox (2023): Demand for diversity, equity and inclusion specialists on campus is high—and so is turnover. Many in the field say the work can be isolating and support from top leaders is rare. While some institutions have elevated their highest-level DEI officers to senior positions or even president, the employees interviewed for this article said that more often, university leaders show a lack of appreciation and support for their work, leading them and many of their colleagues to leave higher ed burned out and disillusioned.
  • The Education Trust (2022): This article summarizes a new report from The Education Trust, which finds that all students benefit from having diverse faculty. Black and Latino students are going to college in greater numbers and they are more likely to graduate when they have faculty members who look like them and can serve as positive mentors and role models. White students who interact with diverse faculty are more likely to develop deeper cross-cultural and critical-thinking skills and greater levels of empathy, which are essential for success in today’s multicultural and multiracial world.
  • Flaherty (2022): The author discusses a survey on LGBTQA identities in the academic workplace, and stresses a concrete need to improve specific workplace climates for sexual and gender minorities.
  • Pettit (2021): The article studies female academic parents–especially those with younger children–and disparities in their research time lost during the pandemic.
  • Chesley (2021): The article outlines the experiences of Stanford faculty members during the pandemic. Its effects on work-life balance and teaching, research and service have caused significant stress for Stanford faculty members, particularly women faculty, as well as faculty members who are at the lowest level of the Stanford professoriate salary scale.
  • Ellis (2021): The article discusses a report released by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, which finds that female academics in the STEM fields, who already face a host of career obstacles, have found those challenges exacerbated by the pandemic.
  • Flaherty (2021): The author discusses studies on coronavirus pandemic’s disproportionate blow to female academics and academics who are caregivers’ productivity.
  • O’Grady (2021): The paper evaluates why certain groups are more likely to have parents with advanced degrees, to add to existing research on underrepresented tenure-track faculty.
  • Kitchener (2021): A postdoctoral fellow describes her experience in academia and research while taking care of her family.
  • Mandavilli (2021): This article responds to the possibility of the pandemic prompting an epidemic loss of women in the sciences.
  • Flaherty (2021): The author describes experiences of multiple Black academics who resigned, citing concerns about institutional racism.
  • Bolleddula (2021): The article describes experiences of Cornell’s 8 women full-professors, who face disproportionate burdens and spend their careers advocating for the hiring of more Black women as faculty.
  • Guiffrida (2021): The author shares how the faculty who’ve succeeded in the new environment of the pandemic share a similar attitude that appears to be lacking among those who’ve struggled.
  • Doherty (2021): The author describes a “quiet crisis” of parents on the tenure track, in which parenthood can be punishing for academics.
  • Misra et al. (2021): The article describes the toll that women of color in academia face when they are expected to do diversity work, as they are disproportionately called upon colleagues for labor that do not feed into their typical workloads and reward systems.
  • Flaherty (2021): The author discusses a survey on adjunct faculty, which finds that the pandemic has made adjunct faculty working conditions more dire. 
  • Alcalde and Subramaniam 2020: A 2020 article in Inside Higher Ed argues that women of color in academia are consistently questioned about their competency based on how others perceive their identities, and the women who are in administrative leadership positions face isolation and increased visibility for scrutiny, which ultimately impacts how they are evaluated.
  • Jones and Williams 2020: A 2020 Hechinger Report article by Jones and Williams highlights that Black academics face a particular set of obstacles, in which they have been persistently excluded and alienated at all levels, across all genders. Jones and Williams stress that institutional change needs to go far beyond solidarity statements and diversity declarations, after finding in their research that Black women leaders, who struggle to navigate their dual oppression, experienced unprecedented self-doubt, a lack of confidence in their abilities, and challenges related to dealing with imposter syndrome and stereotype threat in campus interactions.
  • Flaherty 2019 : in Inside Higher Ed explains one pressing issue that plagues faculty of color: invisible labor. Invisible labor in academia refers to the often unrecognized and undervalued service and administrative work that minority and women faculty willingly engage in to serve various task forces and committees, and as a role model and mentor to students who need extra support to navigate college.
  • Jimenez and al. 2019 and June 2015: A study in Nature: Ecology and Evolution adds that faculty with underrepresented identities disproportionally contribute more than their white male colleagues to diversity and inclusion efforts. This cultural taxation, described in The Chronicle of Higher Education, and the pressure for minority and women faculty to bear these responsibilities, becomes exacerbated by college student populations diversifying faster than faculty members.
  • Langin 2019: An interview in Science with Stephen Thomas describes how young scholars from underrepresented groups struggle with a sense of belonging in their academic institutions, needing strong mentors that advocate on their behalf, but instead facing gatekeepers who limit their potential and career progression.
  • Bartel 2018 : Assumptions of female academic leaders, such as the stereotype for women to exist as caretakers, can undermine their authority and subject them to institutional pressure that goes unrewarded, as further detailed in a 2018 BizEd article.
  • Flaherty 2018 and Flaherty 2017: interprets studies that show women faculty especially outperform male faculty in this type of internal service, which can impact their productivity in other areas of work such as research and teaching. Later, Flaherty in 2018 concludes that female instructors are also held to a different standard by students, and perceived harshly when they do not meet their gendered expectations or grant special favor requests.
  • June 2018: A report by Columbia University outlined in The Chronicle of Higher Education (2018) recommends universities to create systems that reward and recognize invisible labor, since these faculty members feel increasingly overburdened or tokenized by heavy service loads that benefit institutional demands for ethnic representation.
  • Mercado-Lopez 2018 : she points out the irony that faculty of color are by and large leading the efforts intended to retain them, so the support they receive is dependent on themselves as a whole. Thus, she calls universities to recognize, endorse, and invest in their faculty of color through direct and targeted efforts to level and democratize the educational playing field.
  • Matthew 2016 : an article in The Atlantic confirms findings from diversity researchers, that as colleges and universities attempt to meet student demands for more inclusive campuses, within them exists structural hostility toward meaningful diversity, such as a lack of inclusivity and support system for faculty of color once they arrive.
  • McGee 2015 : HigherEdJobs article and study by McGee adds that Black professors have been expected and advised regularly to be “more entertaining” when making research presentations, and encounter multiple layers of racial stereotyping and bias when evaluated on their presentations. In McGee’s interviews with Black faculty, they note that micro-aggressive comments have caused them the most anguish, especially when feeling objectified for entertainment value in their workplace.

Hiring, Evaluation, Promotion, and Retention

  • Powell (2023): Powell in the NY Times outlines the history of diversity statements, conflicts and qualms from professors about their requirements, and scoring rubrics. Diversity statements are a new flashpoint on campus–nearly half the large universities in America require that job applicants write such statements, part of the rapid growth in D.E.I. programs. Many University of California departments now require that faculty members seeking promotions and tenure also write such statements.
  • Friedersdorf (2023): Regarding DEI-statement requirements, Friedersdorf in The Atlantic stresses that demanding that everyone embrace the same values will inevitably narrow the pool of applicants who work and get hired in higher education.
  • Cliburn (2023): Organized by Janice Hamlet, PhD, NIU’s associate vice provost for faculty mentoring and diversity, the eighth annual Preparing Future Faculty of Color Conference serves as an opportunity for over 100 graduate students from 18 institutions and faculty of color to network and explore career pathways.
  • Zahneis (2023): Several states are taking aim at the use of diversity statements in hiring. Recently introduced legislation in Missouri would block their use, and last month the University of North Carolina system’s Board of Governors banned “compelled speech” for prospective students and employees. Further, in March 2023, The chancellors of the Texas A&M and Texas State systems eliminated the diversity-statement requirement in hiring practices. Zahneis goes on to explain what diversity statements are, why they are controversial, their legality, and how they are used in hiring.
  • Abrams (2023): Why should any faculty member have to make a political statement to be given a grant or job, asks Samuel Abrams. Overwhelming evidence shows that groups of diverse thinkers are better problem-solvers and innovators than homogeneous groups, as creativity is often enhanced by integrating different points of view. To Abrams, this is why academics should be deeply opposed to the proliferation of DEI statements in US higher education. In a new survey by the Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression (Fire), about half of almost 1,500 professors at four-year US colleges and universities expressed the view that ideological statements are a justifiable requirement for a job at a college or university, rising to 61 per cent among female faculty. The same proportion of male faculty regarded such statements as ideological litmus tests that violate academic freedom – but 39 per cent still took the opposite view.
  • The Economist (2023): This Economist article explores the proliferation of DEI statements across the University of California system. Studies claim that as many as one in five faculty jobs across America require them. And government agencies that fund scientific research are starting to make grants to labs conditional upon their diversity metrics and plans.
  • The Economist (2023): This Economist podcast looks at ways ideological homogeneity is spreading across campuses, debating whether diversity statements are a threat to academic freedom.
  • Flaherty (2022): Flaherty discusses new analysis in Nature Human Behavior, finding that U.S. academe can only reach true faculty diversity within a generation, but that colleges and universities have to think bigger—and work together. Flaherty continues on to point out other studies on the increase / decrease of faculty diversity throughout the years. For example, another study from 2019 found faculty diversity increased very little nationwide from 2013 to 2017, with large research institutions showing the least progress of all.
  • Matias (2022): In this project page, Matias provides further details on his paper with Lewis and Hope in Nature Human Behavior, as well as opportunities for faculty to contribute to the efforts to work toward demographic parity by 2050. Moreover, the team has generated per-institution trend data and are sharing it with local journalists and student journalists who are reporting on faculty diversity questions.
  • Yu and Kedia (2022): The article discusses a debate sparked after the tenure denial of a professor and social psychologist at the Yale School of Management.
  • Matias et al. (2021): This article by FiveThirtyEight discusses demographics of academic institutions and investigates progress made in diversifying academia.
  • Khalid and Snyder (2021): The authors discuss how DEI work is ideological, and how this is a difficulty when attaching distinctive diversity, equity, and inclusion rules and guidelines to tenure and promotion.
  • Anderson and Heim (2021): The authors describe a moment of solidarity amongst Black female professors in a tenure process.
  • Schermele (2021): The article describes the need for a revolution in academia, after a Latina professor was denied tenure.
  • Newman 2020  and Wingfield 2020: describe their approaches to improving diversity in their respective university faculties. Wingfield’s WashU new sociology department was created with intentional and consistent commitments to racial diversity and excellence, with nearly half of their full-time faculty identifying as people of color, and three women and three Black senior faculty. Those who helped launch this sociology department found that valuing diversity and hiring the best for the job were complementary goals. Wingfield notes that her colleagues’ early collective and shared prioritization of building a racially diverse faculty was crucial to setting the tone for her department and creating a precedent on future hiring cycles. While searching for assistant professors, the hiring committee relied on professional associations that primarily included sociologists of color, instead of on their alma maters or other networks that were more likely to have predominantly white candidates. They also ensured that while narrowing their list, they still maintained a diverse slate of candidates.
  • Flaherty 2019 and Flaherty 2017: Data sourced from RateMyProfessors shows that men are more likely to be evaluated on their intelligence, while women are more likely to be evaluated on personality traits. Flaherty in another 2019 Inside Higher Ed article discusses two studies on teaching evaluations. The first suggests that making students aware of their potential biases before completing evaluations creates a small but significant, positive effect for female faculty members. The second finds that students perceive teaching effectiveness to decline in tenured professors compared to non-tenured professors.
  • Houser 2019: affirms that women are generally funneled into lower-paying non-tenure-track positions, and face a significant pay gap compared to men. Houser notes the difficulty women face moving up academia: while over half of all PhDs are being awarded to women, the percentage of female tenured faculty hovers between 20-33% in the European Union and United States.
  • McMurtrie 2019: explains how student evaluations of teaching can be flawed, overly critical on women and minority faculty. McMurtrie discusses the findings of an interactive tool by Ben Schmidt of NYU, Gendered Language in Teacher Reviews, which illustrates how students evaluate men and women using different criteria.
  • Wang and Widener 2019: state that a disproportionate number of female chemistry graduate students choose a nonacademic career, with few going on to complete a postdoc.
  • Lai 2017 : an article in The Philadelphia Inquirer explains that low turnover due to tenure practices in college and university faculties hamper efforts to diversity faculty, with student enrollment diversity growing at a faster rate than that of faculty.
  • Flaherty 2016: he considers how universities are diversifying their faculties. In the last 20 years, researchers have noticed a redistribution of faculty jobs, in which gains for underrepresented minorities and women have mostly been in non-tenure-track positions.
  • Gasman 2016: in The Hechinger Report, Marybeth Gasman, a professor of higher education in the graduate school of education at the University of Pennsylvania, associates the lack of faculty of color at many elite institutions to their unwillingness to diversify faculty. Gasman observes that faculty hiring committees are not trained in recruitment, rarely diverse in makeup, and generally more interested in hiring those who reflect their identities rather than expanding the diversity of their departments.

Diversity Fatigue

  • Asare 2020 : in a Forbes article discusses how America’s diversity fatigue has led to diversity resistance: a refusal to fund DEI efforts, pushback of diversity programs, and lack of leadership support for DEI initiatives. Asare observes that diversity efforts often fail, can seem inauthentic, and thus, require deep self-examination to better understand individual and organizational blind spots.
  • Zackal 2020 : HigherEdJobs article explains a similar phenomenon in higher education: “compassion fatigue,” a type of chronic stress caused by exposure to other people’s trauma. Since higher education professionals are challenged to respond to the needs of their students with excessive empathy, they can experience burnout, rendering them less resilient, unable to cope with stress, and desensitized to trauma. Dealing extensively with other human beings, especially when they are troubled or having problems, can impair professors’ work and cause them to view their jobs as more transactional.
  • Newkirk 2019 : in a The Chronicle of Higher Education article considers how anti-bias training, which drives most diversity efforts, has failed. The article also argues that few university presidents appear willing to go beyond symbolic gestures, and that campus unrest around race continues since diversity efforts that began in the ‘60s remain unfinished, as progress in most elite American universities has been negligible.
  • Hazelrigg 2019: the Inside Higher Ed article confirms through a study that colleges have made little progress on faculty diversity, particularly at research-intensive universities and doctoral-status institutions. The study stresses that colleges should be more empirical and data driven on their diversity efforts after finding that brand-name institutions have had some of the worst progress.
  • Bohanon 2018 : “Diversity fatigue,” according to Bohanon’s 2018 article in INSIGHT Into Diversity, refers to the acknowledgement that some forms of diversity training and messaging can negatively impact workplace inclusion, especially harming underrepresented job candidates and employees. Research noted in the article indicates that diversity training fails when it is mandatory, since participants are resistant to the idea of being controlled or told what to do and think, and even rebel and hire and promote fewer women and minorities as a result. Sociologists recommend to reframe diversity training from being focused on legal costs of workplace diversity, to the benefits of inclusion: being welcoming to different cultures and achieving a workforce that is more representative of a customer base and society as a whole. In a 2016 study, it is found that voluntary diversity training has a statistically significant positive effect for some historically underrepresented groups.
  • Lam 2018: in her 2018 article in The Chronicle of Higher Education Lam reports seeing commitments to diversity ebb and flow over the decades due to diversity fatigue, not a lack of conviction. She explains that diversity fatigue arises when working with those who see diversity efforts as merely politically correct and philanthropic. Further, Lam reminds universities to focus on underrepresented faculty retention, and that meaningful diversity work cannot be seen as supplemental or remedial, or promoted reactively to times of crisis, but instead an ongoing and commonplace effort.
  • MLA Action Network 2018 : the article discusses Columbia University and Yale University’s equity studies. Columbia’s 2018 study asserts that diversity is essential to scientific excellence, and diverse teams with cognitive diversity allows them to outperform homogenous teams. Overall, the study aims to understand why colleges are still struggling to meet their diversity goals, and why it is more difficult for female and minority faculty members to climb the ladder of academic success. Yale’s 2016 study also observes how diversity initiatives have failed to meet their stated goals. The article concludes by recommending universities to follow Columbia and Yale’s lead in diversifying their faculties and ensuring equitable and safe working environments, since diversity promotes innovation, and benefits everyone, most importantly, the students.
  • Hsu 2017 : a New Yorker article explains that diversity fatigue occurs since recruiting and nurturing minority talent is often exhausting work, with demands for diversity feeling insurgent and threatening to those in power. The author also notes that the casualties of diversity fatigue are those who are not entitled enough to complain about their mental and physical exhaustion.

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Next Steps

  • Kezar (2023): Amidst legislative efforts to identify and cut DEI in higher education, Kezar emphasizes that DEI efforts are more easily under threat since the cuts can be largely siloed to a chief diversity officer and office. As conservative politicians have become aware of these DEI resources and offices, campuses and their DEI personnel and offices can become easy targets for political attacks. Notably, USC’s Pullias Center for Higher Education recently studied campuses that have made progress on eliminating equity gaps and advancing their DEI agendas. They identified Shared Equity Leadership (SEL) as the approach for making true progress that creates culture change. The SEL approach deeply and successfully embeds DEI into day-to-day campus operations. And by embedding DEI in faculty, administrative and staffs’ roles throughout the campus, the work is not made a target for cuts.
  • Misra et al. (2021): The authors discuss the need for engaged interventions, as the consequence is that higher education will most likely become less diverse and inclusive, given the pressure the pandemic is placing on women and faculty of color.
  • Elfman (2021): Despite budget constraints due to the pandemic, the author acknowledges the continuance of faculty diversity initiatives and how they have adjusted to bring faculty diversity closer to student diversity.
  • Cardenas and Davis (2021): The authors outline steps for increasing faculty diversity, moving beyond stated commitments and incremental efforts to embrace more innovative change.
  • Bichsel and McChesney 2020  : a 2020 report from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources, when looking at the status of tenured faculty in American higher education, encourages institutions to not just hire diverse faculty, as younger faculty cohorts include more women and ethno-racial minorities, but also prioritize retaining and promoting women and minorities to maintain their representation in more senior ranks. The authors stress that retention and promotion efforts must consider the development, coaching, and championing of women and minorities after they are added to faculties.
  • Dowell and Jackson 2020, in the Harvard Business Review article after seeing the costs of appropriating the language of social activism into marketing materials and empty solidarity statements, put together a playbook for organizations to foster anti-racism at the organizational, leadership, and individual level. Highlights of this guide include prioritizing organizational accountability through a data-driven action plan, maintaining accountability in leadership, and fostering an encouraging and psychologically safe system for individual accountability.
  • Young 2020 : an EVERFI article highlights the benefits of a diverse faculty, namely to students. Young references and discusses the most frequently cited advantages: student engagement and retention, improved classroom discussions, and better preparation for the shifting work landscape. To achieve these, Young advises hiring committees to post open positions in more places that can draw from a broader slate of candidates and blindly screen through resumes (without names, genders, and other identifying information), and work with outside consultants to evaluate current institutional policies that could be unintentionally discriminatory.
  • Buenestado-Fernández et al. 2019: a PLOS ONE research article observes that the institutionalization process of diversity outreach is at the early stages in universities, so they recommend universities to continue moving forward with their plans and ensure that their solution mixes inclusion with excellence.
  • Paige 2018 : in a 2018 Inside Higher Ed article, she outlines what faculty members who are not members of underrepresented groups can do to become more engaged in diversity and inclusion efforts. She recommends these faculty members to improve campus climate by diversifying their professional networks, viewing diversity as an asset to their university, connecting more with and attending events hosted by students from underrepresented groups to lessen the burden on underrepresented faculty, and most importantly, treating diversity and inclusion efforts with the same urgency that they would treat other institutional issues.

Studies Cited

Abrams, Samuel  J. “Diversity Statements Are an Imposition on Academic Freedom.” Times Higher Education (THE), March 6, 2023.

Adami, Chelcey. “Faculty Advancement Network Centers Equity-Minded Leadership.” Stanford Report, August 9, 2023.

Alcalde , Cristina M., and Mangala Subramaniam. “Women in Leadership in Academe Still Face Challenges in Structures, Systems and Mind-Sets (Opinion).” Inside Higher Ed, 17 July 2020,

“American Universities Are Hiring Based on Devotion to Diversity.” The Economist, February 4, 2023.

Anderson, Nick, and Joe Heim. “Black Female Professors Voice Solidarity with Journalist Nikole Hannah-Jones in UNC Tenure Showdown.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 June 2021,

“Are Diversity Statements a Threat to Academic Freedom?” The Economist, February 3, 2023.

Asare, Janice Gassam. “Defunding Diversity: How Academia Is Failing Black Faculty.” Forbes, March 13, 2023.

Asare, Janice Gassam. “Has Diversity Become A Dirty Word?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 27 May 2020, 

Asare, Janice Gassam. “Why Are There So Few Professors Of Color?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 23 July 2019,

Bartel, Susan. “Leadership Barriers for Women in Higher Education.” Leadership Barriers For Women In Higher Education | BizEd Magazine, 19 Dec. 2018,

Bohanon, Mariah. “Diversity Fatigue: How Ineffective Training Hurts Workplace Inclusiveness.” INSIGHT Into Diversity, 17 Apr. 2018,

Bolleddula, Jyothsna. “’I Don’t Want to Be the Only One’: Cornell’s 8 Black Women Full-Professors Face Disproportionate Burdens.” The Cornell Daily Sun, 2 July 2021,

Buenestado-Fernández, Mariana, et al. “Evaluating the Institutionalisation of Diversity Outreach in Top Universities Worldwide.” PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, 24 July 2019,

Cardenas, Sonia, and Anita Davis. “Inside Higher Ed.” Advice for How Colleges Can Increase Faculty Diversity (Opinion),

Centeno, Jacqueline. “Why We Need More Faculty of Color in Higher Education.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 12 May 2021,

Chesley, Kate. “Survey Reveals COVID-19’s Significant Stress on Faculty.” Stanford Report, 3 Nov. 2021,

Cliburn, Erik. “Conference Prepares Grad Students for Careers in Academia.” INSIGHT Into Diversity, March 14, 2023.

Corley, Jacquelyn. “Where Are The Women Of Color In Academia?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 28 June 2020,

Curran, F Chris. “Proposed Legislation Threatens Viewpoint Diversity in Higher Education.” Brookings, March 28, 2023.

Davis, Leslie, and Richard Fry. “College Faculty Have Become More Racially and Ethnically Diverse, but Remain Far Less so than Students.” Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, 31 July 2019,

“DEI Legislation Tracker.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 14, 2023.

“Diversity in Academia: How Far We Haven’t Come.” MLA Action Network, 20 Nov. 2018,

Doherty, Maggie. “The Quiet Crisis of Parents on the Tenure Track.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 7 Oct. 2021,

Editorial Board, JHU. “Diversity Shouldn’t Be up for Debate: We Need Representation in Academia.” The Johns Hopkins Newsletter, March 9, 2023.

Elfman, Lois. “Institutions Adjust Faculty Diversity Strategies amid Covid-19 Pandemic.” Diverse, 13 Oct. 2021,

Ellis, Lindsay. “Many Female Academics Face Big Challenges – and Covid-19 Raises the Stakes, Report Says.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 9 Mar. 2021,

Estop, Heather. “What Are the Key Challenges Facing Women in Academia? – SAGE Ocean: Big Data, New Tech, Social Science.” SAGE Ocean, SAGE Ocean, 7 Mar. 2019,

“Faculty Diversity Plays a Central Role in College Completion.” The Education Trust, December 1, 2022.

Flaherty, Colleen. “Fighting Gender Bias in Student Evaluations of Teaching, and Tenure’s Effect on Instruction.” Inside Higher Ed, 20 May 2019,

Flaherty, Colleen. “Study Finds Female Professors Experience More Work Demands and Special Favor Requests, Particularly from Academically Entitled Students.” Inside Higher Ed, 10 Jan. 2018,

Flaherty, Colleen. Study Finds Female Professors Outperform Men in Service — to Their Possible Professional Detriment, 12 Apr. 2017,

Flaherty, Colleen. “Study Finds True Faculty Diversity Is Possible by 2050.” Inside Higher Ed , December 5, 2022.

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